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# Overview of Short Learning Programmes and the Dissertation

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- 1. Introductory mathematics for nuclear energy
- 2. Advanced mathematics for nuclear energy
- 3. Thermodynamics and electromagnetism in energy systems
- 4. Special relativity and quantum mechanics for nuclear applications
- 5. Nuclear physics for Power Reactors I
- 6. Nuclear physics for Power Reactors II
- 7. Radiation and radiological protection
- 8. Numerical methods for Nuclear Science
- 9. Nuclear materials and the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
- 10. Environmental and nuclear waste science
- 11. Risk analysis and safe reactor operations
- 12. Nuclear project management
- 13. Introduction to Nuclear Engineering
- 14. Experimental projects

Course name | NQF level | Credits | Type | |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Introductory mathematics for nuclear energy UJ) | 6 (2nd year BSc) | 8 | Bridging |

2 | Advanced mathematics for nuclear energy (UJ) | 7 (3rd year BSc) | 8 | Bridging |

3 | Thermodynamics and electromagnetism in energy systems (UJ) | 6 (2nd year BSc) | 8 | Bridging |

4 | Special relativity and quantum mechanics for nuclear applications (UJ) | 7 (3rd year BSc) | 16 | Bridging |

5 | Nuclear physics for Power Reactors I (iThemba) | 8 (Honours) | 16 | Core |

6 | Nuclear physics for Power Reactors II (iThemba) | 8 (Honours) | 16 | Core |

7 | Radiation and radiological protection (NECSA) | 8 (Honours) | 8 | Core |

8 | Numerical methods for Nuclear Science (UJ) | 8 (Honours) | 8 | Core |

9 | Nuclear materials and the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NECSA) | 8 (Honours) | 8 | Core |

10 | Environmental and Nuclear waste science (NECSA) | 8 (Honours) | 8 | Core |

11 | Risk analysis and safe reactor operations (BIRA) | 8 (Honours) | 8 | Core |

12 | Nuclear project management (UJ) | 8 (Honours) | 16 | Core |

13 | Introduction to Nuclear Engineering (UJ) | 8 (Honours) | 16 | Core |

14 | Experimental projects (iThemba, NECSA, UJ) | 8 (Honours) | 32 | Core |

Course name | NQF level | Credits | Type | |
---|---|---|---|---|

Disertation (In any of the fields of the Coursework) | 8 (Masters) | 120 | 100% |

**Breakdown of the Short Learning Programs**

## 1. Introductory mathematics for nuclear energy

- Principles of vector calculus and vector operators
- Scalar and vector products
- Gradient operator, Laplacian, curl (and forms in cylindrical and spherical coordinates)
- Principles of Gauss’s and Stoke’s theorems
- Introduction to complex analysis
- Vectors, matrices, solution of systems of linear equations, eigenvalues.

Credits: 8

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## 2. Advanced mathematics for nuclear energy

- Principles of series expansions and orthogonal functions
- Solving differential equations
- Applications of differential equations to energy related systems
- NB use examples of solutions of differential equations with specific simplified illustrative solutions in different geometries relevant to a range of applications in the nuclear industry, i.e.: Wave equation, diffusion equation, transport equation

Credits: 8

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## 3. Thermodynamics and electromagnetism in energy systems

- Temperature related behaviour of matter and phase changes
- Principles of convection, conduction, radiation and heat transport
- Principles of heat engines and the conversion of heat to work
- Behaviour of thermodynamic systems
- Principles of thermodynamic potentials
- Introduction to entropy
- Maxwell’s equations obtained by integral form as in Serway
- Electromagnetic radiation in vacuum
- The solar spectrum
- Principles of current and energy transmission

Credits: 8

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## 4. Special relativity and quantum mechanics for nuclear applications

- Relativity principles;
- Space-time;
- Four vectors;
- The Lorentz transformation,
- Energy mass equivalence
- Pair production;
- Mass deficit and origin of nuclear energy.
- Particle wave duality;
- Heisenberg uncertainty principle;
- Wave functions and probability interpretation;
- Schrödinger equation;
- Operators;
- Particle in a potential well;
- Simple harmonic oscillator (first classical, then QM);
- Introduction to Angular momentum;
- Hydrogen atom;
- Principles of Perturbation theory;
- Variational Principle,
- Parity, Exchange Symmetry,
- Introduction to Matrix formulation,
- Principles of first order scattering theory (optional)

Credits: 16

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## 5. Nuclear physics for Power Reactors I

- The Nuclear Chart,
- Radioactive decay - Statistical nature and the exponential decay equation;
- Decay mechanisms (β,α,γ), electron capture etc.;
- Decay chains;
- Half-life;
- Activity;
- Natural radioactivity;
- Binding energy per nucleon and nuclear stability;
- Liquid drop model;
- Fission, Fusion, Capture, Decay Products,
- Applications.

Credits: 16

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## 6. Nuclear physics for Power Reactors II

- Kinematics (non-relativistic and relativistic);
- Simple Scattering, Cross-Sections, Thomson Scattering (classical);
- Compton (quantum mechanical) scattering;
- The deuteron;
- Fermi gas;
- Nuclear shell model;
- Neutron capture;
- Resonances;
- Transmutation;
- Fast neutrons;
- Breeding reactions;
- 233U and 239Pu Breeding Cycles

Credits: 16

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## 7. Radiation and radiological protection

- Detection of radiation types;
- Energy loss mechanisms;
- Radiation Damage,
- Detector principles,
- Photo-electric, Compton and Pair Production cross-sections,
- Signal processing,
- Statistical interpretation of data;
- Data acquisition and storage.
- Basic radiation biology;
- Radiation monitoring;
- Radiation dose units;
- ALARA principle;
- Radiation shielding;
- Criticality considerations,
- Radiation limits and regulations

Credits: 8

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## 8. Numerical methods for Nuclear Science

- Introduction to Unix
- Introduction to C++
- Root finding
- Numerical Integration
- Project 1 : The Semi-Classical solution of Molecular Vibrations
- Curve fitting
- Numerical solutions to differential equations (Runga-Kutta)
- Project 2 : The QM solution for the Deuteron
- Introduction to statistical simulation methods (Monte-Carlo)
- Overview of reactor simulations

Credits: 8

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## 9. Nuclear materials and the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

- Material properties and measurement techniques;
- Wigner Energy;
- Fuel, moderator and cladding requirements and specifications;
- Basics of radiation damage in reactor materials – and effects on properties;
- Generation IV nuclear materials and intrinsic safety considerations ,
- Nuclear fuel cycle front end - Enrichment Technologies,
- Breeding Cycles(232Th => 233U and 238U => 239Pu),
- Reprocessing,
- Refueling Schemes,
- MOX,
- Remote Handling Technologies,
- Ionisation Chemistry (and radiation damage again).

Credits: 8

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## 10. Environmental and nuclear waste science

- Mining,
- Natural Radioactivity
- Radioactive Tailings and Mine Dumps,
- Radioactive waste types and classification (fission products, actinides, LA, MA HA, etc.);
- Waste confinement criteria and technologies, waste heat considerations;
- Waste reprocessing;
- Radioactivity release mechanisms and transport into the environment;
- Nuclear reactor and plant Commissioning and decommissioning.
- Environmental Assessments
- Regulatory and Legal Frameworks.
- World Distribution of Accessible Sources of Uranium and Thorium.

Credits: 8

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## 11. Risk analysis and safe reactor operations

- Introduction to probabilistic theory: sample spaces and events,
- Laws of probability,
- Random variables and distributions,
- Relationships between distributions;
- Joint probability distributions;
- Expectation values and moments;
- Moment generating function;
- Central limit theorem;
- Convolutions;
- Stochastic processes
- Normal distribution, variance, confidence limits, hypothesis testing
- Decision theory: decision under risk, decision trees, decision under uncertainty;
- Markov chains and the Markovian decision process
- ISO standards,
- Applications to Nuclear Power facilities

Credits: 8

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## 12. Nuclear project management

- Project scheduling by PERT – CPM;
- Feasibility assessment and NPV calculations
- Industrial Economics: Bank Rate, Financing, Construction Time,
- Industrial Relations,
- Legal Framework,
- Power Distribution.
- International regulations, conventions, safeguards and non-proliferation of nuclear materials
- Management of accident scenarios and emergency .

Credits: 16

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## 13. Introduction to Nuclear Engineering

- Neutron cross sections;
- Reactor materials (fuel, moderator, reflector, control and construction);
- Criticality and reactivity;
- Neutron transport and diffusion equations;
- Reactor control;
- Delayed neutrons;
- Fission products including Reactor Poisons and Transuranic Actinides, Purity Requirements;
- Temperature effects on reactivity;
- Thermo-hydraulics;
- Enrichment Distribution
- Stability analysis;
- Accident simulation;
- Intrinsic safety criteria and generation IV reactor concepts.
- Reactors; PWR, BWR, CANDU, AGR, HTR, PBMR, EWR, Fast Reactors, High Flux Reactors.

Credits: 16

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## 14. Experimental projects

- Experiment 1 : iThemba : Compton scattering
- Experiment 2 : iThemba : alpha-particle spectra and ranges
- Experiment 3 : iThemba : Natural radioactivity
- Experiment 4 : iThemba : Gamma angular distributions to determine the spin of 19F
- Experiment 5 : iThemba : (p,n) Threshold Reactions and Neutron detection
- Experiment 6 : iThemba : Natural radioactivity
- Experiment 7 : NECSA : Neutron Activation Analysis
- Experiment 8 : NECSA : Radiation Monitoring
- Experiment 9 : NECSA : Waste processing
- Experiment 10 : iThemba : Cosmic Rays and the Muon Lifetime
- Experiment 11 : iThemba : (p,ff) Detection of fission fragments
- Experiment 12 : iThemba : Coincidence detection – Positron lifetimes

Credits 32